This paper proposes a family of novel flying capacitor transformerless inverters for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. Each of the new topologies proposed is based on a flying capacitor principle and requires only four power switches and/or diodes, one capacitor, and a small filter at the output stage. A simple unipolar sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique is used to modulate the inverter to minimize the switching loss, output current ripple, and the filter requirements. In general, the main advantages of the new inverter topologies are: 1) the negative polarity of the PV is directly connected to the grid, and therefore, no leakage current; 2) reactive power compensation capability; and 3) the output ac voltage peak is equal to the input dc voltage (unlike neutral-point-clamped and derivative topologies, which requires twice the magnitude of the peak ac voltage). A complete description of the operating principle with modulation techniques, design guidelines, and comprehensive comparisons is presented to reveal the properties and limitations of each topology in detail. Finally, experimental results of 1-kVA prototypes are presented to prove the concept and theoretical analysis of the proposed inverter family for practical applications.
Transformerless photovoltaic grid-connected inverters have become more and more popular in the field of distributed photovoltaic power generation systems due to the advantages on high efficiency, low cost and small size. However, common-mode currents in the transformerless photovoltaic inverters can result in serious electromagnetic interference problems and safety issues, which will reduce the reliability of the photovoltaic inverter systems. In this paper, an improved H5 topology, namely H5-D topology, is proposed, in which a clamping diode is added on the basis of H5 topology to eliminate the common-mode voltage fluctuation in H5 topology. Further, the simulation results of the H5-D topology and H5 topology are given and compared by using PSIM software, especially, on the performance of common-mode currents suppression. Finally, the experimental prototypes of the H5-D topology and H5 topology are built and tested, the experimental results validate the advantages of the H5-D topology. The proposed H5-D topology provides a new practical topology for distributed photovoltaic grid- connected power generation systems.
Soft-switching techniques of transformerless photovoltaic grid-connected inverters (TLI) can significantly reduce switching losses, as well as soften switching processes. Conventional DC-AC soft- switching configurations proposed by Dr. Divan are invalid in TLIs because of leakage current problem (LC). In order to develop soft-switching techniques in TLIs, this paper proposes a new soft-switching configuration and a procedure to guide the invention of soft-switching TLIs. First, this paper proposes two basic resonance tanks related to DC bus polarities; then uses these basic tanks to elevate four popular full bridge type TLIs according to the proposed guideline. As a result, four soft-switching TLIs are gained. Second, this paper picks obtained soft-switching highly efficient and reliable inverter concept (HERIC) as example to analyze its soft-switching operation principle and performance. As a consequence, all active switches of the gained soft-switching HERIC circuit are switched under both of zero-current turn-on and turn-off conditions; the reverse recovery problem of freewheeling diodes is alleviated owing to the zero-current turn-off of diodes; meanwhile, the common-mode voltage at the switching frequency scale is still constant. Finally, some experimental results from a 3-kW universal prototype at 50-kHz switching frequency are provided to verify the effectiveness of main contributions of this paper.
Transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters are more widely adopted due to high efficiency, low cost, and light weight, etc. Many novel topologies and their corresponding modulation methods have been proposed, verified, and put into use, solely focusing on active power injection without leakage current issues. However, some new grid codes require PV inverters to have the ability of injecting reactive power into the utility for grid support. In order to map the challenge, an improved hybrid modulation method is proposed and evaluated for one nonisolated H6 topology as an example. With only simple modification for switching patterns and phase shift for current reference, the variable reactive power generation ability with zero crossing distortion is achieved, while the common mode voltage is also eliminated. The operation modes with the improved hybrid modulation approach are presented in detail and some design considerations are also provided. Extensive results from a 4-kVA prototype along with the SMPLIS simulation verify the proposed hybrid modulation method.
Grid-tied photovoltaic inverters must fulfill several requirements, including high efficiency and reduced cost and complexity of the overall system. Hence, transformerless operation is advantageous in order to achieve the prior requirements. Meanwhile, such operation results in several demerits, such as the dc current component injection into the grid. This component should be effectively mitigated in order to avoid some impacts, such as the saturation of the transformers in the distribution network. On the other hand, limiting this component up to few milliamperes is a challenging issue due to the various measurement errors. Accordingly, different blocking and measurement techniques have been proposed and studied to overcome this issue, where some demerits are seen behind each technique such as the implementation complexity, the common-mode voltage problems, and the high filter requirements. Moreover, none of them measures the dc component directly, but predicts its value using different approaches. Hence, this letter proposes a new technique to measure this dc current component with high accuracy using a coupled inductor combined with a small-range Hall effect current sensor in order to achieve the lowest possible cost with the highest possible accuracy. The proposed technique is introduced, analyzed, and tested experimentally to verify its principle of operation. Also experimental measurement of the dc current component using a 5-kVA transformerless grid-tied voltage-source inverter is introduced with and without the proposed technique in order to validate its operation.
This paper presents a new diode free freewheeling and common-mode voltage (CMV) clamping branches for single phase transformerless grid connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter for complete leakage current elimination and low conduction losses. In the past, various isolation techniques have been proposed for leakage current elimination in transformerless PV inverters. However, galvanic isolation only cannot completely eliminate leakage current due to that a resonant path is created by the switch junction capacitors, which also generate leakage current. The proposed freewheeling branch consists of four MOSFETs along with a clamping branch, which consists of two MOSFETs and a capacitor divider. The divider is connected to the DC side of the converter to keep constant CMV in the freewheeling path. As a result, the improved CMV clamping has been achieved for complete leakage current elimination. The unipolar sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) technique and modified HERIC topology with AC-decoupling for galvanic isolation is adopted for lower conduction losses. The proposed topology consists of only MOSFET in the freewheeling and clamping path which provides lower conduction losses compared with diode based topologies. The performances of the proposed topology in terms of common mode characteristics, leakage current, total harmonic distortion and conversion efficiency are analyzed and compared with H5, H6, HERIC and HBZBR topologies. The detail analyses are performed using MATLAB/Simulink and PSIM.
In this paper, a modified buck–boost grid-connected three-phase photovoltaic inverter is presented. In the structure of inverter, an inductive dc link is used between the input and output. The merits of the employed inverter are soft switching and step-up/down conversion without any additional power converter stage. It is a transformerless inverter with no leakage current issue. Moreover, as a result of increased switching frequency, it offers output current total harmonic distortion within standard limits. It uses only one current sensor and there is no electrolytic capacitor in it, which leads to high reliability. The operating principle is thoroughly explained and a simple control strategy with a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed. The simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the behavior of a modified inverter, its control strategy, and the MPPT method.
Adding the auxiliary switches to the conventional H-bridge inverter is an effective way to eliminate the leakage current for transformerless PV systems, such as H5, H6, etc. Inspired by the newly developed embedded-switch H6 topology, a novel embedded-switch inverter (ESI) is proposed in this paper for three-phase transformerless PV systems. First, the operation principle and characteristics of the proposed ESI are analyzed. Second, the common-mode model of the three-phase ESI is established, based on which the main factors that affect the leakage current are discussed. The finding reveals that the switching states with conventional modulation strategy result in high-frequency common-mode voltage, which is the source of leakage current. In order to solve the problem, a new modulation strategy is presented for ESI to eliminate the high-frequency leakage current. Finally, the time-domain simulation and the experimental tests are carried out. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed
In this paper, a new method to calculate the five parameters of the single-diode model of a photovoltaic cell or panel is presented. This new method takes into account the intrinsic properties of the model equation and the technique of linear least-squares fitting; so, the computational complexity and costs are very low. Moreover, the proposed method, named two-step linear least-squares method, is able to work absolutely blindly with any kind of I-V curve. It does not need initial guesses at all and, consequently, it is not necessary to know previously any information of any parameter. The proposed method provides the parameters of the single-diode model just using the coordinates of N points (N≥5) of the I-V curve. The results provided by this method in a first stage have the same order of accuracy of the best documented methods in the field of parameters extraction, but, furthermore, in a second stage, the best accuracy documented until now is obtained in two important case studies usually used in the literature as well as in a large-scale I-V curve repository with more than one million of curves.
A new control approach of integrating a solar photovoltaic (PV) with a battery storage is presented to a single-phase grid for residential and electric vehicle application. The main purpose of the proposed work is to feed a continuous power to the grid, thereby enhancing the viability of the battery energy storage support connected to the system. The charging and discharging of the battery achieve power leveling and load leveling along with increased reliability of the system. The multifunctional voltage- source converter acts as an active power filter and performs the harmonics mitigation along with reactive power compensation. In the proposed system, a unique control is developed for resynchronization of the grid during reconnection of the grid after the mitigation of a failure. The overall control of the system is adaptable under various practically occurring situations such as disconnection of the PV array, the battery, and the grid from the system. The detailed design and control of the proposed system are presented. The validity of the proposed system is performed through a laboratory prototype developed for a power rating of 2.2 kW connected to the utility grid. The performance of the system is found satisfactory under various disturbance, and the recorded results have been demonstrated.
Battery storage controlled by an energy management system (EMS) becomes an enabling technique to enhance solar farm integration. In this paper, the EMS controls battery storage to shape the fluctuated photovoltaic (PV) plant output into a relatively constant power and support the peak load. The proposed integrated design method considers both battery size and EMS impacts on the utility benefits and cost. The utility benefits include power generation, peak power support, and reduced line losses. The cost of battery storage is determined by the size and lifetime based on the developed battery models. Accordingly, the utility revenue change due to the battery storage controlled by EMS can be evaluated. Therefore, the integrated design of battery size and EMS can be determined by managing the change of utility revenue to gain economic benefits for the large-scale PV power plant application. Finally, the lithium-ion phosphate (LiFePO4) battery and lead-acid battery are compared to demonstrate the proposed method on a utility system model, respectively.
74.5%, and the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the inverter output current was less than 5%. Moreover, a maximum system efficiency of 95.4% was achieved at a load of 1.1 kW. Finally, the high power density design is evaluated by the Pareto front optimization. The power densities of three power decoupling topologies, such as a boost topology, a buck topology, and the proposed topology are compared. As a result, the proposed topology achieves the highest power density (5.3 kW/dm3) among the topologies considered herein.
24 V, 12 teeth-slots, 100 W PMDC brushed motor, and various responses are represented in this brief.